Up to five maneuvers from this list below will be selected by random drawing.
The goal is to complete each maneuver in the order determined by draw on the first try in the shortest time.
Up to two attempts can be made on each maneuver, the CD will judge whether or not the attempt was successful.
Completing the maneuver on the first try is worth 10 points. Success on the second attempt is worth 5 points.
A maneuver can be 'skipped' (no points awarded) by calling 'Pass' to the CD instead of performing the maneuver.
Places are determined by total points, total time is a tie-breaker for those scoring the same point totals.
Each pilot can be assisted by a caller of their choice.
List of Manuvers
This is one of the most basic maneuvers, but not easy to fly well. It has to be perfectly round, entry and exit have to be at the same altitude. The difficulty in flying this manuever well is in correcting for effects of wind drift. In competition, it helps if you don't have to fly first, so you can watch what your competitors are doing and judge the wind drift that you have to take into account.
The maneuver starts with a pullup of about 3 - 4 g. Once past the vertical, the back pressure on the elevator is slowly relaxed to float over to top of the loop to keep it round. Past the top, the back pressure is slowly increased again throughout the back part till horizontal flight. The plane has to stay in one plane with the wings orthogonal to the flight path. Rudder is used to maintain the plane of the figure and ailerons are used to maintain the orientation of the wings.
This is the basic loop with a roll (usually a snap roll) at the top of the loop. The roll has to be centered at the top of the loop.
This is a variation of the basic loop. The two vertical lines and the horizontal line on top have to be of the same length. The exit line at the bottom has to be at least as long as the other three sides. The quarter loops that connect the four sides have to have the same radius at each corner.
The figure starts with a half loop to inverted flight. A half roll then results in horizontal upright flight. This is one of the maneuvers that have been used in WW I to reverse direction. This maneuver does not preserve speed and altitude. It trades speed for altitude.
The figure starts with a half roll to inverted followed by the second half of a loop downward.
This is another maneuver to reverse direction. This one, like the immelman, does not preserve speed and altitude. In this case it trades altitude for speed.
Half Cuban Eight
Five-eighths of a loop to a down-line at a 45 degree angle. The plane is inverted at this point. Centered on this downline is a half roll from inverted to upright. A pullout to horizontal completes the figure.
This is another one of the maneuvers that reverse direction. The downline can be used to adjust the altitude and speed at the end of the figure.
Two Half Cuban Eights can be combined to form a Cuban Eight or Lay-down Eight. In this figure in competition the two looping parts have to be flown at the same altitude with the same radius. The exit has to be at the same altitude as the entrance to the figure.
Reverse Half Cuban Eight
This figure starts with a pull to a 45 degree up-line. Centered on this line is a half roll from upright to inverted. Five-eighths of a loop complete the figure to horizontal flight.
This again is one of the maneuvers that have been used to reverse direction while preserving altitude and airspeed.
Reverse Cuban Eight
Like the Cuban Eight, a Reverse Cuban Eight can be formed by flying two Reverse Half Cuban Eights back to back.
This figure is similar to a Full Cuban Eight, but it does not contain any rolls. The second loop is an outside loop. Again, the two loops have to have the same radius and have to be flown at the same altitude. Entry and exit have to be at the same altitude.
Hammerhead or Stall Turn
It starts with a quarter loop into a vertical climb. When the plane stops climbing, it pivots around its vertical axis (which is now horizontal).The nose moves in a vertical circle from pointing up through the horizon to pointing down. After moving vertically down to pick up speed again, the maneuver is finished with the last quarter of a loop to horizontal flight. This figure can have optionally rolls on both the up-line and the down-line.
The quarter loop is flown just like the first part of a loop. When the plane is vertical, the elevator backpressure is released completely. During the vertical line up, some right aileron and right rudder is needed to maintain the vertical attitude because of the engine torque and p-factor. When the plane has slowed enough, full rudder initiates the turnaround. It is followed by right-forward stick (right aileron and forward elevator) to keep the plane from torquing off. The pivot is stopped with opposite rudder when the nose points straight down. When the pivot is completed, the ailerons and rudder are neutralized. Elevator and rudder are used to keep the nose pointing straight down. The pivot must be completed within one wingspan. Rolls on the downline require only aileron input if the plane is trimmed correctly.
This maneuver is sometimes called a hammerhead stall. This is not an accurate name because the airplane never stalls. The airspeed may be very low, close to zero, but since there is no wingloading during the turn-around, there is no stall (at zero g wing loading, a wing does not stall). The plane is flying throughout the maneuver with all the control surfaces effective (although sometimes only marginally so).
This also is one of the maneuvers that have been used to reverse direction while adjusting altitude and airspeed by changing the length of the down-line.
The figure starts with a quarter loop to a vertical climb. A half loop then results in a vertical down-line. The figure completes with another quarter loop to horizontal flight. The looping part on the top of the figure does not have to be the same radius as the two other looping portions (the quarter loops going into and coming out of the humpty). Again the figure can have optionally rolls on both the up-line and the down-line.